IPUMS: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series
IPUMS is the world's largest individual-level population database. It provides census and survey data from around the world integrated across time and space. IPUMS integration and documentation makes it easy to study change, conduct comparative research, merge information across data types, and analyze individuals within family and community context. Data and services available free of charge.
D-PLACE: The Database of Places, Languages, Cultures, & Environment
A database of over 1400 societies, D-PLACE synthesizes cultural data with geographic and environmental information. The cultural data is based on the work of anthropologists George Murdock and Lewis Binford, representing pre-1950 ethnographic data. The database can be searched by location, language group, cultural trait, & environental variables, and results can be visualized as a table, map, or linguistic tree.
The Database of Religious History
The Database of Religious History "aims to be the world's first comprehensive, online quantitative and qualitative encyclopedia of religious and social history. Open source, free and shaped in content and function by its users, it will function as a massive, standardized, searchable encyclopedia of the current best scholarly opinion on historical religious traditions and the historical record more generally, allowing users to instantly gain an overview of the state of scholarly opinion and access powerful, built-in analytic and data visualization tools."
Atlas of Economic Complexity
Developed by Harvard's Center for International Development, the Atlas of Economic Complexity is a "powerful interactive tool that enables users to visualize a country’s total trade, track how these dynamics change over time and explore growth opportunities for more than a hundred countries worldwide."
The GDELT Project is a large, global database of human societies "that monitors the world's news media from nearly every corner of every country in print, broadcast, and web formats, in over 100 languages, every moment of every day and that stretches back to January 1, 1979 through present day."
Glottobank is "an international research consortium established to document and understand the world’s linguistic diversity. Glottobank team members are pursuing this goal on two fronts. First, we have established four global databases documenting variation in language structure (Grambank), lexicon (Lexibank), paradigm systems (Parabank) and phonetic changes (Phonobank)."
Global Terrorism Database
The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) is an "open-source database including information on terrorist events around the world from 1970 through 2015 (with annual updates planned for the future). Unlike many other event databases, the GTD includes systematic data on domestic as well as international terrorist incidents that have occurred during this time period and now includes more than 150,000 cases."
Database of Political Institutions
The Database of Political Institutions "presents institutional and electoral results data such as measures of checks and balances, tenure and stability of the government, identification of party affiliation and ideology, and fragmentation of opposition and government parties in the legislature, among others. The current version of the database, which is now hosted at the Inter-American Development Bank, expands its coverage to about 180 countries for 40 years, 1975-2015."
Global Price and Income History Group
The Global Price and Income History Group (GPIH) hosts a collection of data sets on historical income, prices, GDP, and government budget from around the world.
A package for R, AnthroTools contains tools for analysing ethnographic data. Specifically, it contains functions for multi-factor free-list analysis and cultural consensus analysis.
Diverse is an R package that utilizes interdisciplinary concepts of diversty to create a tool for calculating and visualizing different aspects of diversity in complex systems. Read more about the package here.